This week’s update contains 27 NEW Multiple choice, multiple answer questions from the reading section, reported from very recent PTE exams. Our teachers have verified all questions and provided all answers. Practice these questions under time constraints to get the maximum benefit.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a metal, like copper, gold, etc. and an insulator, such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is a behaviour opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave frequency integrated circuits, and others. Silicon is a critical element for fabricating most electronic circuits.
Semiconductor devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat. Because the electrical properties of a semiconductor material can be modified by doping, or by the application of electrical fields or light, devices made from semiconductors can be used for amplification, switching, and energy conversion.
The conductivity of silicon is increased by adding a small amount of pentavalent or trivalent atoms. This process is known as doping and resulting semiconductors are known as doped or extrinsic semiconductors. Apart from doping, the conductivity of a semiconductor can equally be improved by increasing its temperature. This is contrary to the behaviour of a metal in which conductivity decreases with increase in temperature.
Which of the following are not properties you would expect to observe in a semiconductor?
- The resistance will decrease with an increase in temperature
- Current might flow more easily in one direction compared to the other
- The number of pentavalent or trivalent atoms is higher
- The resistance can be variable in a semiconductor
- Can display sensitivity to light or heat
- Will lead to amplification, switching and energy conversation
- Enable easy fabrication of electrical circuits
The human body, as well as many moving or static objects of military or civil interest, are normally warmer than the surrounding environment. Since hotter objects emit more infrared energy than colder ones, it is relatively easy to identify them with an infrared detector, day or night. Hence, the term night vision is also used and sometimes misused in the place of “infrared vision”, since one of the original purposes in developing this kind of systems was to locate enemy targets at night. However, night vision concerns the ability to see in the dark although not necessarily in the infrared spectrum. In fact, night vision equipment can be manufactured using one of two technologies: light intensifiers or infrared vision. The former technology uses a photocathode to convert light in the visible or near infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to electrons, amplify the signal and transform it back to photons. Infrared vision on the other hand, uses an infrared detector working at mid or long wavelengths that are invisible to the human eye to capture the heat emitted by an object.
Which of the following statements about night vision not correct?
- Night vision refers to the ability to see in the infrared range
- Night vision was initially developed to locate enemy targets at night
- Night vision refers to the ability to see in the dark
- Night vision capability can be developed using light intensifiers
- Night vision is the result of amplification of signal in the electromagnetic spectrum
Mystery shopping organizations advise that their research should only be used for employee incentive programs and that punishment or firing is an inappropriate use of mystery-shopper data. However, stories of employees being fired as a direct result of negative mystery shopper feedback are not uncommon.
The Trade Organization for Mystery Shopping Providers, MSPA has defined a Code of Professional Standards and Ethics Agreement for Mystery Shopping Providers and for Mystery Shoppers. Other organizations that have defined standards for Mystery Shopping are ESOMAR, MRS and MRA. The most widely used set of professional guidelines and ethics standards for the Market Research industry is ISO
In the state of Nevada, mystery shoppers must be licensed by the PILB board and work under a company that has a private investigators license in order to perform mystery shopping jobs. Unlicensed mystery shoppers may face fines.
In June 2008, the American Medical Association’s Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs released a recommendation on the use of “secret shopper patients”. The Recommendation: “Physicians have an ethical responsibility to engage in activities that contribute to continual improvements in patient care. One method for promoting such quality improvement is through the use of secret shopper ‘patients’ who have been appropriately trained to provide feedback about physician performance in the clinical setting.” However, in 2009, the council decided to withdraw the report in light of further testimony heard at the 2008 Interim Meeting.
According to the text which of the following are requirements to become a mystery shopper in Nevada?
- The shopper should be approved by MSPA
- The shopper must follow the code prescribed by ESOMAR or MRA
- The shopper must be licensed with the PILB board
- The shopper must work for a company having a private investigation license
- The shopper must have completed a course from MRS
- The shopper should follow the Ethical and Judicial Affairs recommendations
Modern Private Military Companies (PMCs) trace their origins back to a group of ex-SAS British veterans in 1965 who, under the leadership of the founder of the SAS, Sir David Stirling and John Woodhouse, founded WatchGuard International as a private company that could be contracted out for security and military purposes.
The company’s first assignment was to go to Yemen to report on the state of the royalist forces when a cease-fire was declared. At the same time Stirling was cultivating his contacts in the Iranian government and exploring the chances of obtaining work in Africa. The company eventually operated in Zambia and in Sierra Leone, providing training teams and advising on security matters. Stirling also organised deals to sell British weapons and military personnel to other countries for various privatised foreign policy operations. Contracts were mainly with the Gulf States and involved weapons supply and training. The company was also linked with a failed attempt to overthrow Colonel Muammar Gaddafi from power in Libya in 1971. Woodhouse resigned as Director of Operations after a series of disagreements and Stirling himself ceased to take an active part in 1972.
Stirling also founded KAS International and was involved in a collaboration with the WWF to forcibly reduce the illegal poaching and smuggling of elephant tusks in various countries of Southern Africa. Other groups formed by ex-SAS servicemen were established in the 1970s and 80s, including Control Risks Group and Defence Systems, providing military consultation and training.
Which of the following cannot be credited to Sir David Stirling?
- He was a cofounder of WatchGuard International
- He recruited and trained a group of ex-SAS British veterans
- He coined the term Modern Private Military Companies (PMCs)
- He played a major role in expanding WatchGuard to Africa
- He organized deals to sell British weapons
- He was a founder of KAS international
- He was also a cofounder of Control Risks Group and Defence Systems
Doughs vary widely depending on ingredients, the kind of product being produced, the type of leavening agent, how the dough is mixed and cooking or baking technique. There is no formal definition of what makes dough, though most doughs have viscoelastic properties.
Leavened or fermented doughs, generally made from grain cereals or legumes that are ground to produce flour, mixed with water and yeast are used all over the world to make various breads. Salt, oils or fats, sugars or honey and sometimes milk or eggs are also common ingredients in bread dough. Commercial bread doughs may also include dough conditioners, a class of ingredients that aid in dough consistency and final product.
Flatbreads such as pita, lafa, lavash, matzah or matzo, naan, roti, sangak, tortilla, and yufka are eaten around the world and are also made from dough. Some flatbreads, such as naan, use leavening agents; others, such as matzo, do not. Crackers are also made from dough, and some are leavened.
Pasta and noodles are generally based on unleavened doughs that are worked until they are dry and smooth, and then shaped into their final form. The finished pasta may be cooked immediately or dried before cooking.
According to the text, which of the following are made with leavened dough?
- Some types of crackers
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